Multiphoton Ionization with Precise Intensity Control

In the presence of strong laser fields (> 1012 W/cm2), atoms and molecules can simultaneously absorb many photons to exceed the ionization limit, leading to the ejection of photoelectrons. The analysis of photoelectron kinetic energy spectra provides valuable insight into atomic and molecular structures. The kinetic energy can be determined by measuring the time-of-flight of the electrons over a known distance.

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