Arthur E. Chiou, Wen Wang, Greg J. Sonek, John Hong, and M. W. Berns
Optical trapping of micron-size, dielectric microspheres using a single beam gradient force (Fig. la) was first demonstrated by Ashkin in 1986. Since then, extensive research and development of this technique has turned it into a practical device (known as optical tweezers) which has been used in a wide variety of biological and biomedical applications.
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