The stage is set for a paradigm shift in telecommunications. For example, new technologies such as optical fiber amplifiers are migrating toward an ever greater capability. Fiber lasers, filters, correlators, and switches are also being developed, while contactless connectors, active leaky feeders, and optical wireless are more recent arrivals on the scene. In addition, fibers can now be "programmed" to display new features crucial to future networking, e.g., gratings written in the core that render the fiber wavelength dependent. Such devices will enable fiber networks to use combinations of wavelength and coded signals for routing and managing traffic.