Here are some additional links and resources related to the feature article in the January 2021 Optics & Photonics News.
The Experiment’s history
The Polaroid Revolutionary Workers Movement
The birth and activities of the Movement and its founders have spawned a range of interesting accounts.
- “The Polaroid Revolutionary Workers Movement,” Brought to You By … podcast (Business Insider), 12 August 2020.
- African Activist Archive: The Polaroid Revolutionary Workers Movement, Michigan State University. Valuable archive of primary documents related to the Movement’s activities and Polaroid’s response.
- C.Y. Buysse. “Activists waged anti-apartheid fight in ’70s,” Bay State Banner, 24 August 2010.
- “The Coolest Black Family in America, No. 19: The Hunter/Williamses,” Ebony, 24 June 2013—Profile of Caroline Hunter and Ken Williams, founders of the Polaroid Revolutionary Workers Movement.
- A. Ramirez. “How two African-American employees exposed Polaroid’s role in apartheid South Africa,” excerpt from A. Ramirez, The Alchemy of Us: How Humans and Matter Transformed One Another (MIT, 2020) [NPR Science Friday website]
- “What is ethical?: The case of Polaroid,” excerpt from Confronting Apartheid (Facing History and Ourselves, 2020).
- M. McCanne. “When Polaroid workers fought apartheid,” Dissent, 14 August 2020.
Technology and embedded bias
- L. Roth. “Looking at Shirley, the ultimate norm: Color balance, image technologies, and cognitive equity,” Can. J. Commun. 34, 111 (2009)—Study of biases embedded in early Kodak color-balance cards.
- D. Smith. “ ‘Racism’ of early color photography explored in art exhibition,” The Guardian, 25 January 2013—News report of the art exhibition “To Photograph the Details of a Dark Horse in Low Light,” which explored racial biases in the photographic medium.
- D. Harwell. “Federal study confirms racial bias of many facial-recognition systems, casts doubt on their expanding use,” Washington Post, 19 December 2019.