Following are some references and additional reading to accompany the article “From Venice to the Dutch Republic” (Optics & Photonics News, September 2018)

Publications and articles

A. Chalmers. The General biographical dictionary: containing an historical and critical account of the lives and writings of the most eminent persons in every nation; particularly the British and Irish; from the earliest accounts to the present time (printed for J. Nichols, 1812–1817).

M.A.W. Dunlop, Glass in the Old World (originally published 1882; reprinted 2010 by Kessinger Legacy Reprints).

W. Buckley. European Glass: A Brief Outline of the History of Glass Making (Ernest Benn Ltd., 1926).

G. Tierie. “Cornelis Drebbel (1572-1633)” (H.J. Paris, Amsterdam, 1932),

A. Van Helden. “The birth of the modern scientific instrument,” in The Uses of Science in the Age of Newton, J.G. Burke, ed. (Univ. of Calif. Press, 1983).

G.L’E. Turner. “Animadversions on the origins of the microscope” in The Light of Nature: Essays in the History and Philosophy of Science, J.D. North and J.J. Roche, eds. (Springer, 1985).

M.B. Pepin. “Seven arrows in the sky: The observations of Johannes Sachariassen,” J. Br. Astron. Assoc. 103, 241 (1993).

M. Pendergrast. Mirror, Mirror: A History Of The Human Love Affair With Reflection (Basic Books, 2003).

M. Prak. The Dutch Republic in the Seventeenth Century: The Golden Age (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2005).

B. de Mon, “Terugblikken naar Metius” [Looking back at Metius] (2007; retrieved 8/16/2018 at

E.A. Reeves. Galileo’s Glassworks: The Telescope and the Mirror (Harvard Univ. Press, 2008).

J.M. Riddle. A History of the Middle Ages, 300–1500 (Rowman & Littlefield , 2008).

A. Van Helden et al., eds. The Origins of the Telescope, History of Science and Scholarship in the Netherlands, v. 12 (KNAW Press, 2010).

D. Wootton. Galileo: Watcher of the Skies (Yale Univ. Press, 2010).

A.D. Morrison-Low et al., eds. From Earth-Bound to Satellite: Telescopes, Skills and Networks (Brill, 2011).

K. van Berkel. Isaac Beeckman on Matter and Motion: Mechanical Philosophy in the Making (Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, 2013).

W. de Clercq et al. “Living in times of war: Waste of c. 1600 from two garderobe chutes in the castle of Middelburg-in-Flanders (Belgium)”, Post-Medival Archeol. 41, 1 (2013).

K. Andersen. “Reverse-engineering a genius (has Vermeer mystery been solved?),” Vanity Fair (29 Nov. 2013).

Tim’s Vermeer, a documentary movie by Tim Jenison and Penn Jillette (2013).

L.J. Snyder. Eye of the Beholder; Johannes Vermeer Antoni van Leeuwenhoek, and the Reinvention of Seeing (W.W. Norton, 2015).

Websites and online resources

“Glass Through the Ages” (timeline from Corning Inc.),

“Eyeglasses Through the Ages,”

“Glass as a material in Renaissance Venice,”

“The rise of the mirror as commonplace,” section in Brown University course 13 Things: Archaeology, material culture, science studies and design,

“Venice and the façon de Venise,”

“Alkmaar: Engineering marvels, city of inventions,”