Claire Gmachl, Federico Capasso, Deborah L. Sivco, Alfred Y. Cho,
High quality micro-resonators are of particular interest for semiconductor lasers as they allow a smaller volume of the active material with concomitant moderate energy of a ray in a whispering gallery mode to fluctuate in time. Eventually a ray trapped by total internal reflection impinges on the boundary below the critical angle and escapes by refraction.
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