Backward Second-harmonic Generation in Periodically-poled LiNbO3

second-harmonic waves, some of the waves propagate in the direction opposite to the fundamental waves and are thus known as backward second-harmonic (BSH) waves. Because of the extremely large phase-mismatch that occurs in such a process, the BSH effect is negligible. Conventional phase-matching techniques using either angle or temperature tuning cannot compensate for large phase-mismatching. Thus, the backward process has been virtually ignored by most of the nonlinear optics community. While there were some early theoretical studies, it is only recently that the backward parametric processes have been analyzed theoretically in detail. In general, the backward nonlinear processes are important since they can lead to mirrorless optical parametric oscillators (OPOs) and other novel effects

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