Philippe Lalanne, Simion Astilean, and Pierre Chavel, Laboratoire Charles Fabry de I'Institut d'Optique, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Orsay, France; Edmond Cambril and Huguette Launois, Laboratoire de Microstructures et de Micro-électronique, Bagneux, France
direct laser-beam writing offer nearly-100% efficiency for zone widths or grating periods much larger than the wavelength. In practice, however, performance decreases1 in the so-called resonance domain, i.e., when zone widths or grating periods are equal to a few wavelengths. This is due to both theoretical limitations and fabrication problems encountered when monitoring together continuous profiles and sharp vertical edges. Obtaining high diffraction efficiency with large deflection angles is a challenge in design and fabrication of tomorrow's DOEs.
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