W. Wang, A.E. Chiou, G.J. Sonek, and M.W. Berns
In 1969, Ashkin demonstrated that two counter-propagating focused laser beams form a stable 3-D trap for small dielectric spheres (see Fig. 1a). In 1985, a stable single-beam gradient optical trap (see Fig. 1b) was successfully demonstrated. Since then, optical laser traps in both dual- and single-beam geometries have been developed and used extensively for sample micromanipulation and force transduction.
Access to the full text of this article is restricted. In order to view this article please log in.