A. H. Gnauck, A. R. Chraplyvy, Fabrizio Forghieri, R. W. Tkach, R. M. Derosier, A. M. Vengsarkar, D. W. Peckham, J. L. Zyskind, and J. W. Sulhoff, AT&T Bell Laboratories, Holmdel, N.J.
Installed telecommunication lightwave systems are now being upgraded with erbium-doped-fiber-amplifier (EDFA) optical repeaters. Less expensive than full regenerators which receive, reshape, and re-transmit the optical signal, the EDFAs also allow future capacity increases through the use of wavelength-division multiplexing. These amplifiers operate at approximately 1555 nm, where the loss of conventional step-index fiber, used in almost all installed systems, is a low 0.2 dB/km.
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