Photorefractive Dark and Vortex Solitons

Spatial solitons in photorefractive (PR) materials1 have been the object of growing interest during the last two years. Until now, three different types of PR solitons have been investigated. One type of PR soliton stems from the nonlocal nature of the photorefractive effect, as manifested in the dependence of the perturbation in the refractive index on the transverse derivatives of the light intensity distribution.

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