Undersea Lightwave Transmission Systems Using Er-doped Fiber Amplifiers
Neal S. Bergano
The erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA), a research curiosity in the late 1980s, will be the backbone of future undersea lightwave communications by the mid-1990s. Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers will have a profound impact on the design, operation, and performance of transoceanic cable transmission systems. The first amplifier systems to be installed in the mid-1990s will increase the capacity of undersea systems four-to-eight fold over the most advanced digital fiber system in use today. Later generations of erbium-doped fiber amplifier systems promise to satisfy the international transmission needs into the 21st century.
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