Hyper-Rayleigh Scattering In Solution
A problem with the experimental determination of the first-order optical hyperpolarizability β (second order nonlinear optical polarizability) has been that centrosymmetric structures of individual molecules with a non-zero microscopic hyperpolarizability β do not possess a macroscopic second-order susceptibility p. For this reason, the first measurements of β have been performed on crystals without centrosymmetry, Langmuir-Blodgett films, and poled polymers. Electric field induced second harmonic generation has been the only technique that allows the determination of optical hyperpolarizabilities in solution, if the values for the dipole moment, the local field correction factors, and the third-order hyperpolarizability are known.
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