Hazem Rashed, Joseph Izatt, and Cynthia Toth
Although the question of why the pupil is black had attracted the attention of writers dating back to the time of Ancient Rome, it was not until 1851 that Herman Ludwig von Helmholtz unlocked the door to the back of the eye by inventing the Augenspiegel, or ophthalmoscope. Von Helm-holtz’s groundbreaking invention enabled examination of both normal and diseased eyes. It also allowed drawings to be made of the fundus. The first images of the retina were useful to physicians for communicating both normal and unusual findings to their colleagues.
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