High-NA Pickup Objective for High-Density Media

In 1967 Duguay and Rentzepis suggested the possibility of producing population inversions at short wavelengths by x-ray photoionization of inner-shell p-electrons in atomic species. Instead, the present work uses inner-shell d-electron removal (which has a larger cross section) and improves the pumping efficiency to a specific state by concentrating on species with closed outer shells. The concept of efficient broadband pumping with laser-produced plasmas, as proposed by Harris et al. and demonstrated by Caro et al. at Stanford University, to produce metastable states was also incorporated into this work.

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