Approaching the irradiance of the sun through nonimaging optics

In designing a concentrator as an image-forming system, unnecessarily high standards are being set since high light collection rather than imaging is desired. Nonimaging designs exceed the concentration attainable with focusing techniques by factors of four or more and approach the thermodynamic limit. These methods have been applied to concentrate terrestrial sunlight by 56,000 fold and are capable of approaching or even exceeding the surface irradiance of the sun.

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