Lithographic lenses for microcircuit fabrication

Reduction lenses used in the hightech cameras known as "steppers" to produce today's complex microchips represent one of the greatest set of challenges to optical engineers in design, as well as manufacturing science and technology. Lens technology has tracked the explosive growth that we have seen in microcircuit complexity in the past decade, but it is difficult to predict just how much further optical technology can be pushed.

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