January, 1986

Fiber-optic Sensors for the Chemical Industry

The efficiency and safety of chemical processes rely on the extensive use of sensors to measure process variables. Their use in closed-loop control systems ensures that previously established optimum operating conditions are maintained within close limits, resulting in good quality control. Backup sensor alarm systems give an early warning of the development of a hazardous situation, such as the release of flammable materials.

Cosmology: Man's place in the universe

Intelligent life first appeared on earth some 10 or 20 billion years after the universe began a complex sequence of events ranging from nuclear reactions under hot, dense conditions, through galaxy formation, further nuclear reactions in stars, chemical processes, and biological evolution. The individual events and their sequencing appear both natural and likely, given the microscopic physics we observe in the laboratory and the large-scale parameters of the universe. But they are also rather sensitive to these being as they are and not otherwise. This suggests the existence of a deeper level of underlying physics that we have not yet fully understood.


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